Monday, October 31, 2016

Top 100 SAP HANA Interview Question And Answers For Experienced And Freshers 2016

SAP HANA Interview Questions And Answers For Freshers & Experienced
Welcome to SAP Interview Questions. Here we are providing Top 100 SAP HANA Interview Questions For Experienced And Freshers 2016This blog post is designed to suit the needs of students and professionals who intend to prepare for interview calls on SAP HANA

Often for the purpose of preparing you to struggle to look for important topics and browse through some voluble concepts on HANA, which you feel might be asked in an interview. Such a hurried search consumes a lot of time & energy, as it requires goes through huge volume of SAP HANA Technology




So in order to solve this problem, sapabapiq.com come up with Top 100 SAP HANA INTERVIEW QUESTIONS to crack the SAP HANA interview, which will equipped to deal with such problems. Let's enjoy reading this awesome blog post.

SAP HANA Overview And Architecture Of SAP HANA


High Performance Analytical Appliance - In memory computing In memory computing studio as a frontend for modeling and administration. HANA is connected to ERP systems. F rontend modeling studio can be used for load control and replication server management.

Two types of Relational Data stores in HANA : Row Store, Column Store .

 SAP BOBJ tools can directly report on HANA


Data from HANA can also be used in MS Excel - MDX


Row Store: Traditional Relational Database. The difference is that all the rows are in memory in HANA where as they are stored in a hard drive in traditional databases.

Column Store: The data is stored in columns like in SAP BW

Persistence Layer: In memory is great but it is volatile and data can be lost with power outage or hardware failures. 

To avoid this HANA has a Persistence Layer sure that all the data in memory is also store in a hard drive.

Session Management : This component takes care of login services.

Two processing engines : Well. data is in memory which is good but How do I extract report on the data? 

HANA has two processing engines one is based on SQL which accepts SQL queries and the other one is based on MDX .

HANA Supports Sybase Replication Server ; Sybase Replication Server can be used for real time synchronization of data between ERP and HANA.

SAP HANA INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


Q) What is SAP HANA ?

Answer: SAP HANA is an in-memorydatabase.

It is a combination of hardware and software made to process massive real time data
using In-Memory computing.

It combines row-based, column-based database technology.

Data now resides in main-memory (RAM) and no longer on a hard disk.

It’s best suited for performing real-time analytics, and developing and deploying
real-time applications.

An in-memory database means all the data is stored in the memory (RAM). This is no time wasted in loading the data from hard-disk to RAM or while processing keeping some data in RAM and temporary some data on disk. Everything is in-memory all the time, which gives the CPUs quick access to data for processing.

SAP HANA is equipped with multi engine query processing environment which supports relational as well as graphical and text data within same system. It provides features that support significant processing speed, handle huge data sizes and text mining capabilities.

Q) What is SAP HANA? What is the development language used by SAP HANA?

SAP HANA is an in-memory computing engine (IMCE) used for real-time processing of huge volumes of data and building and deploying real-world applications. Adopting the row-based and column-based DB technology, SAP HANA is an advanced relational DB product serviced by SAP SE. With this high-performance analytic (HANA) system, the big data exists on the main memory and not on the hard disk. 

It replaces the onus of data maintenance separately on the legacy system and simplifies the tasks of administrators in this digital world. 

SAP HANA uses C++ language as development language.

Q) What is the role of the persistence layer in SAP HANA ?

Answer: SAP HANA has an in-memory computing engine and access the data straightaway without any backup. To avoid the risk of losing data in case of hardware failure or power cut-off, persistence layer comes as a savior and stores all the data in the hard drive which is not volatile.

Q) What are the components or products of HANA ?

Answer : SAP HANA contains the following components.

  • SAP HANA DATABASE 
  • SAP HANA Studio SAP HANA CLIENT
  • SAP HANA INFORMATION COMPOSE
  • DIAGNOSTIC AGENT 7.3
  • SAP HANA client package for MS excel
  • SAP HANA UI for Information Access (INA)
  • SAP HANA AFL 1.0
  • Software Update Manager for SAP HANA
  • SAP LT Replication Add On
  • SAP LT Replication Server
  • SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection (DXC)
  • SAP Data Services 4.0


Q) What are the different editions available in HANA appliance software?

Answer :

  • Platform Edition:


Platform edition is intended for customers who want to use ETL-based replication and already have a license for SAP BO Data Services.

  • Enterprise Edition:


Enterprise edition is intended for customers who want to use either trigger-based replication or ETL-based replication and do not already have all of the necessary licenses for SAP BO Data Services.

Q) What is SAP In-Memory Appliance (SAP HANA) ?

Answer : HANA is an in-memory technique to store data that is particularly suited for handling very large amounts of tabular, or relational, data with extra ordinary performance. Common databases store tabular data row-wise. 

Reorganizing the data in memory column-wise brings a tremendous speed increase when accessing a subset of the data in each table row.

Q) What is columnar and Row-Based Data Storage?

Answer: Ddatabase table contains data in the form of rows and columns. However Computer memory is organized as a linear structure. To store a table in linear memory, there are two options. A row-based storage stores a table as a sequence of records, each of which contains the fields of one row. In a columnar storage the entries of a column are stored in contiguous memory locations.

The SAP HANA database allows specifying whether a table is to be stored column-wise or row-wise. It is also possible to alter an existing table from columnar to row-based and vice versa. Search operations in tabular data can be accelerated by organizing data in columns instead in rows.

Q) Name the operating system SAP HANA supports.

More than 70% of customers run their SAP workloads on Linux with the use of SUSE Linux Enterprise Server, which is the best OS choice for SAP HANA.

Q) Explain Parallel Processing in SAP HANA?

Using the columnar data storage approach, the workload in SAP HANA is divided vertically. The columnar approach allows linear searching and aggregation of data rather than two-dimensional data structure. If more than one column is to be processed, each task is assigned to diverse processor. Operations on one column are then collimated by column divisions processed by different processors.

Q) List advantages of using SAP HANA database.

• With the HANA technology, you can create gen-next applications giving effective and efficient results in the digital economy.

• By using singe data-in memory, SAP HANA supports smooth transaction processand fault-tolerant analytics

• Easy and simple operations using an open-source, unified platform in the cloud

• High-level Data Integration to access massive amounts of data

• Advanced tools for in-depth analysis of present, past and the future.
Interested in learning SAP HANA? Well, we have the comprehensive Sap Hana Course to give you a head start in your career.

Q) List the merits and demerits of using row-based tables.

Merits:
• No data approach can be faster than row-based if you want to analyze, process and retrieve one record at one time.
• Row-based tables are useful when there is specific demand of accessing complete record.
• It is preferred when the table consists of less number of rows.
• This data storage and processing approach is easier and effective without any aggregations and fast searching.Demerits:
• The data retrieval and processing operations involve the complete row, even though all the information is not useful.

Q) List advantages of column-based tables.

• Allows smoother parallel processing of data as the data in columns is stored vertically. Thus, to access data from multiple columns, every operation can be allocated to a separate processor core.
• Only specific columns need to be approached for Select query and any column can be used for indexing.
• Efficient operations since most columns hold unique values and thus, high compression rate.

Q) What table type is preferred in SAP HANA Administration: column-based or row-based?

Since analytic applications require massive aggregations and agile data processing, column-based tables are preferred in SAP HANA as the data in column is stored consequently, one after the other enabling faster and easier readability and retrieval. 

Thus, columnar storage is preferred on most OLAP (SQL) queries. On the contrary, row-based tables force users to read and access all the information in a row, even though you require data from few and/or specific columns.

Q) What is the main SAP HANA database component?

Index Server consists of actual data engines for data processing including input SQL and MDX statements and performs authentic transactions.

Q) Explain the concept of Persistence Layer.

The persistence layer in SAP HANA handles all logging operations and transactions for secured backup and data restoring. This layer manages data stored in both rows and columns and provides steady savepoints. Built on the concept of persistence layer of SAP’s relational database, it ensures successful data restores.

Besides managing log data on the disk, HANA’s persistence layer allows read and write data operations via all storage interfaces.

Q) Define Modeling Studio in SAP Hana Administration.

Modeling Studio is an operational tool in SAP HANA based on Eclipse development and administration, which includes live project creation.
• The SAP HANA Studio further builds development objects and deploys them, to access and modify data models like HTML and JavaScript files.
• It also handles various data services to perform data input from SAP warehouse and other related databases.
• Responsible for scheduling data replication tasks.

Q) List the different compression techniques in HANA?

• Run-length encoding
• Cluster encoding
• Dictionary encoding

Q) Explain SLT

SLT expands to SAP Landscape Transformation referring to trigger –based replication. SLT replication permits data transfer from source to target, where the source can be SAP or non-SAP while the target system has to be SAP HANA with HANA database. 

Users can accomplish data replication from multiple sources. The three replication techniques supported by HANA are:
• SLT
• SAP Business Objects Data Services (BODS)
• SAP HANA Direct Extractor Connection (DXC)

Q) Name the replication jobs in SAP HANA.

• Master Job (IUUC_MONITOR_)
• Data Load Job (DTL_MT_DATA_LOAD__)
• Master Controlling Job (IUCC_REPLIC_CNTR_)
• Migration Object Definition Job (IUCC_DEF_MIG_OBJ_)
• Access Plan Calculation Job (ACC_PLAN_CALC__)

Q) What is Latency?

The time duration to perform data replication starting from the source to the target system is known as latency.

Q) What are the various components of SAP HANA Administration?

• SAP HANA Studio
• SAP HANA Application Cloud
• SAP HANA Cloud
• Sap HANA DB


Q) How to perform backup and recovery operations?

During a regular operation, data is by default stored to the disk at savepoints in SAPHANA. As soon a there is any update and transaction, logs become active and get saved from the disk memory. 

In case of power failure, the database restarts like any other DB returning to the last savepoint log state. SAP HANA requires backup to protect against disk failure and reset DB to the previous state. The backups simultaneously as the users keep performing their tasks.

Q) Define SLT Configuration

Configuration is the meaningful information to establish a connection between source, SLT system and SAP HANA architecture as stated in the SLT system. Programmers are allowed to illustrate a new Configuration in Configuration and Monitoring Dashboard.


SAP HANA INTERVIEW QUESTIONS FOR EXPERIENCED


Q) What is Stall?

The waiting process for data to load from the main memory to the CPU cache is called Stall.

Q)Define different types of information views.

There are primarily three types of information views in SAP HANA, which are all non-materialized.
• Attribute view
• Analytic view
• Calculation View

Q) What are Configuration and Monitoring dashboard?

They are SLT Replication Application Servers to provide configuration information for data replication. This replication status can also be monitored.

Q) What is logging table?

Logging table records all replicated changes in the table, which can be further replicated to the target system.

Q) How to define Transformation rules in HANA?

Using advanced replication settings, transformation rules are specified to transfer data from source tables during replication process. For instance, setting rules to covert fields, fill vacant fields and skip records. These rules are structured using advanced replication settings (transaction IUUC_REPL_CONT)

Q) Explain the role of transaction manager and session?

SAP HANA transaction manager synchronizes database transactions keeping the record of closed and open transactions. When a transaction is committed or rolled back, the manager informs all the active stores and engines about the action so that they can perform required actions in time.

Q) How is SQL statement processed in SAP HANA?

Each SQL statement in SAP HANA is carried out in the form of a transaction. Every time, a new session is allocated to a new transaction.

Q) Define Master-Controller job.

A Master-controller job is responsible to build database logging table in the source system. It further creates synonyms and new entries in SLT server admin when the table loads / replicates.

Q) How users can avoid un-necessary storage of logging information?

Pause the replication process and terminate the schema-related jobs.

Q) Is the table size in source system and Sap HANA system same?

No

Q) When to change the number of Data Transfer Jobs?

The number of data transfer jobs change when the initial loading speed or latency replication time is not up to the mark. At the end of the initial load, the number of initial load jobs may be reduced.

Q) What is the default IMCE Studio perspective?

Administrator Console

Q) Mention what are the different compression techniques?

There are three different compression techniques

Run-length encoding
Cluster encoding
Dictionary encoding

sap_hana

Q) Mention what is latency?

Latency is referred to the length of time to replicate data from the source system to the target system.

Q) Explain what is transformation rules?

Transformation rule is the rule specified in the advanced replication setting transaction for the source table such that data is transformed during the replication process.

Q) Mention what is the advantage of SLT replication?

SAP SLT works on trigger based approach; such approach has no measurable performance impact in the source system

It offers filtering capability and transformation

It enables real-time data replication, replicating only related data into HANA from non-SAP and SAP source systems

It is fully integrated with HANA studios

Replication from several source systems to one HANA system is allowed, also from one source system to multiple HANA systems is allowed.


HANA INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS


Q) Explain how you can avoid un-necessary information from being stored?

To avoid un-necessary information from being stored, you have to pause the replication by stopping the schema-related jobs

Q) Mention what is the role of master controller job in SAP HANA?

The job is arranged on demand and is responsible for

Creating database triggers and logging table into the source system
Creating Synonyms
Writing new entries in admin tables in SLT server when a table is replicated/loaded

Q) Explain what happens if the replication is suspended for a longer period of time or system outage of SLT or HANA system?

If the replication is suspended for a longer period of time, the size of the logging tables increases.

Q) Mention what is the role of the transaction manager and session?
The transaction manager co-ordinates database transactions and keeps a record of running and closed transactions.  When transaction is rolled back or committed, the transaction manager notifies the involved storage engines about the event so they can run necessary actions.

Q) Explain how you can avoid un-necessary logging information from being stored?

You can avoid un-necessary logging information from being stored by pausing the replication by stopping the schema-related jobs.

Q) Explain how SQL statement is processed?

In the HANA database, each SQL statement is implemented in the reference of the transaction.  New session is allotted to a new transaction.

Q) Name various components of SAP HANA?

SAP HANA DB
SAP HANA Studio
SAP HANA Appliance
SAP HANA Application Cloud

Q) Which entry must the client maintain in SAP Service Marketplace in order to provide access to SAP Support to access SAP HANA studio remotely?

Master Index server

Q) Which of the following are recovery types in SAP HANA database?

Full recovery and Point in time recovery

Q) Select the correct statement?

During data and log backup ,the system is available as usual

Backup only supports files as backup media

Only the database payload is backed up


Q) Size of the backup can be estimated from which system table?

M_CONVERTER_STATISTICS

Q) Select the correct statement with respect to “LOG WRITING”

Log is written to log Buffers in memory

If a Log-Buffer becomes full OR a commit entry is written , the log buffer will be written to assigned Log Volume

The log is finally written into Log segments where multiple log buffers can be combined into .

Q) Which privilege types are included in the SAP HANA authorization concept?

Analytic privileges

System privileges

SQL privileges

Q) From the HANA studio in which tab can you see HANA services?

Landscape

Q) What is the benefit of implementing SAP HANA with SAP ERP?

Performance optimization for operational reporting

Q) Which component of the Execution Control module breaks the query into executable parts ?

SQL parser

Q) What are the components of SAP IMCE Clients 1.0?

IMCE SQLDBC 1.0

IMCE JDBC 1.0

IMCE ODBC 1.0

Q) Semantic layer is available for reporting by which of the following reporting tools?

Crystal Reports, Dashboards n& Webl

Q) Calculation view can contain the following.

Calculation views

Analytic views

Database tables

Q) Relational Universe is used for Semantic Business Layer?

True

Q) What is an example of a selective data load using SAP Landscape Transformation?

Selected data for a range of years is loaded into SAP HANA.

Q) You installed SAP HANA Database using 31 as your system number, which port is used for standard SQL communication for client access?

33115

Q) Which view in SAP HANA studio do you use to add additional users?

Navigator view

Q) What are the recommended ways to perform a database backup?

HANA studio
SQL commands

Q) Which command stops the HANA database?

HDB stop

Q) In which table would you can get the current system limits?

M_SYSTEM_LIMITS

Q) What is the maximum number of jobs for which you can view the information in the Current tab of Job log?

5

Q) Which tab in SAP HANA studio displays CPU load history data?

Performance

Q) By executing “HDB info” command, can we check SAP HANA process?

Yes

Q) Which of the following sequence of steps is used to implement SAP HANA with SAP ERP?

SAP HANA system setup Data Provisioning Modeling Consumption

Q) The SAP LT trigger-based approach uses a log table to record all relevant changes, where is this log table stored?

In the source system

Q) Which delivered role is mandatory for a system administrator in SAP HANA?

content_admin


Top 100 SAP HANA Interview Questions


Q) From which tool can you monitor the query time from SAP HANA ?

SQL trace

Q) Which technology uses trigger-based replication?

Test Data Migration Server and Near Zero Downtime

Q) By which OS command can you check SAP HANA process?

HDB proc

Q) Which of the following connections requires the highest network bandwidth?

SAP HANA and SAP BW

Q) What must you configure in Data Services 4.0 to establish a connection to SAP ERP?

A datasource

Q) Which driver is required for the connection between HANA and BOBJ explorer?

JDBC

Q) Which of the following commands installs or updates the repository for SAP HANA studio?

hdbinst -a studio – – copy_repository=<target_repository_path>

Q) What is the correct communication data flow between diagnostics in SAP Solution Manager and SAP HANA in the monitor scenario ?

Solution Manager SMDAgent HostAgent SAP HANA

Q) What is the recommended approach by SAP when loading tables into SAP HANA from SAP ERP via Data Services?

Use the ABAP application tier

Q) Storage must be shared by SAP HANA nodes in a high availability scenario?

True

Q) To enable SAP Early Watch Alerts which of the following components must be installed?

Collection script
Host agent

Q) In which file do you configure the maximum size of the delta storage memory?

Indexserver.ini

Q) What is the main function of the SAP HANA repository?

To store design-time object versions

Q) Which views are displayed in the SAP HANA Development perspective?

SAP HANA Repositories

Navigator (SAP HANA Systems)

Project Explorer

Q) What is the file extension associated with a design-time schema definition?

.hdbschema

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